You’re telling a story and a friend rolls their eyes, or maybe you’re at dinner and your aunt says, “I normally don’t like the way you dress, but that sweater looks great on you!” These sneaky slights often come with a smile, yet you walk away feeling confused and bad about yourself.
That’s because passive-aggressive behavior is a way of expressing anger in a seemingly non-hostile way, says Andrea Brandt, PhD, a therapist and author of 8 Keys to Eliminating Passive-Aggressiveness. You’ve been caught in the crosshairs, but you don’t know you’ve been hit
Passive aggressive behavior encompasses more than just eye rolls and faux compliments. Maybe it’s that friend who’s chronically late but won’t say she doesn’t like hanging out with you. Or a co-worker who’s killing productivity with mindless distractions but won’t say he hates his job.
We all have moments when we respond sarcastically or say yes but really mean no (it’s complicated, Justin). Both are hallmarks of passive-aggressive behavior.
And that’s OK, says Ken Braslow, MD, a psychiatrist and founder of Luminello. It becomes an issue when the behavior is chronic, a crutch to bypass emotionally authentic conversation.
Passive-aggressiveness most often stems from a family that avoids overt conflict, but it’s also reinforced by a society that tells us anger isn’t a healthy emotion, Brandt says.
“We’re often taught to be compliant and not say things that will create problems,” she says. “Because then there might be a blow up, and no one has given us the recipe for how to deal with anger.”
While there’s no cure-all for dealing with passive-aggressiveness, and context is important (you’ll probably respond differently when dealing with your boss than with your S.O.), these five strategies are a good place to start.
1. Don’t take the bait
There’s a fine line between responding to someone who’s being passive-aggressive and engaging in the drama they’re creating. You want to respond without doing the emotional work for them, Braslow says. That means avoiding asking questions like: “Why did you say that?” or “What did you really mean?”
Example: A friend says “thank you” but doesn’t sound pleased.
How to handle it: Answer the content, not the context of the situation. Simply saying “you’re welcome” meets the person where they’re at, but doesn’t take their bait, which is a great way to disarm them.
2. Stay in the present moment
If you’re calling someone out on their behavior, chances are this isn’t the first time they’ve acted this way. Remember: this habit usually gets picked up in childhood as a way to avoid confrontation.
Still, it’s not a good idea to bring out the laundry list of past offenses or make sweeping generalizations, says Scott Wetzler, PhD, vice chairman of the department of psychiatry at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and author of Living With the Passive-Aggressive Man. Instead, focus on what just happened.
Example: Your mom says, “That dress does a great job of hiding your weight gain.”
How to handle it: Don’t respond with a general statement about how she always criticizes the way you look (even if you feel that way). Rather, focus on that specific moment and tell her how her words make you feel.
3. Be assertive when talking
The passive-aggressive person is being avoidant, so this is no time to beat around the bush. Instead, address the issue head-on. Focus on your feelings and use “I” statements. This method brings understanding and empathy, rather than “you” statements, which can feel accusatory, Brandt says.
Example: You’re at a family dinner and notice a relative adding spices to a dish you made. It’s also not the first time they’ve messed with your recipes.
How to handle it: Approach them and say, “I noticed you adding in spices. I feel disrespected when you do something like that without telling me. It’s fine if you want to tweak your own dish, but I don’t want to change the whole recipe.”
4. Make sure the punishment fits the crime
One way to get passive-aggressive people to change their behavior is to have clear consequences for their actions. But those punishments can quickly go overboard (e.g., screaming “I’m never ever talking to you again!” in the heat of the moment).
Evaluate how their behavior has affected you, then determine the best response, Wetzler says. Should you tell your friend you need some time apart? Or is it time to end the friendship altogether? Take some time and think about it.
Example: This is the third time your friend has been late to the movies without giving you a heads up.
How to handle it: Next time it happens, be direct and tell them it bothers you when they leave you hanging. If they continue to do it, let them know you’ll invite another friend instead.
5. Understand your audience
No matter how hard you try, some people won’t be responsive when you talk to them, says Stacy Kaiser, a therapist and lifestyle coach. “Many people who are passive-aggressive aren’t going to change because you’re bothered by it,” she says.
If you’re deciding whether to bring up a person’s behavior, it can be helpful to do a quick cost-benefit analysis to figure out if it’s worth making an effort to get them to change their ways. In other words, talking to your spouse is a lot less risky than talking to your boss.
Example: Your boss is giving you the silent treatment after another leader at the company compliments your work.
How to handle it: Ask yourself: Is talking to your boss worth your time and energy? Will it lead to change? Will it lead to consequences, like being passed over for promotions or losing your job? If so, ignore their tantrum and focus on spreading positive vibes at work.
Chit-chats with passive-aggressive people are tricky to navigate, especially when you’re forced to interact in some way, like with your mother-in-law or new manager. While the pain of this is universal, the suffering doesn’t have to be. Here’s a quick recap of how to handle it like a pro.
Even though it stings, you need to calm down (thanks T-Swift). Respond to what they said, not how they said it. Handle one incident at a time, avoid generalized statements, and be assertive with your wishes. Don’t forget to use “I” statements, draw boundaries, and stick with ‘em.
If speaking up is a no-go — because, say, your job would be at risk — honor your hurt feelings to yourself (or your bestie at happy hour) and move on. In some cases, trying to call out someone’s behavior is simply not worth it.